The city started to be ruled by headman (starosta).During the end of 15th until the beginning of 16th centuries, the post of Cherkasy headman was held by the prominent persons of that time – Bogdan Glinskiy, Kmyta Oleksandrovych, Vasyl Dashkevych, Andriy Nemyrovych, Ostafiy Dashkevych, Vasyl Tyshkevych, Dmytro Baida-Vyshnevetskiy etc.New Cherkasy Castle was the center of city life, it was built in 1549–52 on the place of the old one.After the Union of Lublin in 1569 Cherkasy became a part of Poland.The history of Cherkasy has not been thoroughly explored.The year of establishment is considered to be 1286 on the Kievan Rus territory.Summers are dry and warm (the average temperature in July is 19.8 °C (67.6 °F)), with occasional highs reaching 35 °C (95 °F).
After a successful campaign, Khmelnytsky in 1654 signed an alliance with Muscovy at Pereyaslav. Cherkasy remained part of Poland, but territories east of the Dnieper River including left-bank Ukraine and Zaporizhia were secured for Muscovy.
From the north-west, Cherkasy is surrounded by forest.
Known as Cherkaskiy Bir, it is the biggest (28,500 hectares or 70,400 acres) natural pine forest in Ukraine.
During 15th–16th centuries, Cherkasy was one of the main centers that helped the Cossacks in the population of Ukrainian south.
Citizens took part in military marches against Tatars and Turkish, including operations led by Ivan Pidkova.