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The manuscript according to Zayd remained with Abu Bakr until he died.

Zayd's reaction to the task and the difficulties in collecting the Quranic material from parchments, palm-leaf stalks, thin stones and from men who knew it by heart is recorded in earlier narratives.

After Abu Bakr, Hafsa bint Umar, Muhammad's widow, was entrusted with the manuscript.

In about 650, the third Caliph Uthman ibn Affan (d.

However, Muhammad's critics accused him of being a possessed man, a soothsayer or a magician since his experiences were similar to those claimed by such figures well known in ancient Arabia.

Welch additionally states that it remains uncertain whether these experiences occurred before or after Muhammad's initial claim of prophethood.

The term mus'haf ('written work') is often used to refer to particular Quranic manuscripts but is also used in the Quran to identify earlier revealed books.

These codices had differences that motivated the Caliph Uthman to establish a standard version now known as Uthman's codex, which is generally considered the archetype of the Quran known today.

There are, however, variant readings, with mostly minor differences in meaning.

Muhammad's illiteracy was taken as a sign of the genuineness of his prophethood.

For example, according to Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, if Muhammad had mastered writing and reading he possibly would have been suspected of having studied the books of the ancestors.


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