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Likewise, in Scotland, even though the number of needles and syringes distributed increased from 2.6 million in 2004/5 to 3.7 million in 2009/10 (equating to 200 per person), this was still well below the average number of injections per person (465).39 In England and Wales, progress in the provision of OST is being threatened by a drive towards abstinence-based treatment.

The potential government policy, 'Putting Full Recovery First', views the goal of drug treatment as "independence from any form of chemical."40 This has been disputed by many groups who say this is only a realistic target for a minority of drug users and that many would finish treatment too early, leading to a relapse.41 In the UK, state schools have to provide Sex and Relationship Education (SRE) but independent schools do not.

Indeed, the number of black Africans living with HIV continues to rise.11 In 2015, there were 2,360 new HIV diagnoses as a result of heterosexual sex – 1,350 among heterosexual women and 1,010 among heterosexual men.12 This is about half the diagnoses made ten years ago when this figure stood at 4,340.

The fall is largely due to changing migration patterns, with fewer people born in sub-Saharan Africa being diagnosed with HIV in the UK.

The median age of HIV diagnosis for heterosexuals has risen from 34 in 2005 to 40 in 2014.

In 2014, the most recent data available, an estimated 45,000 men who have sex with men were living with HIV.This difference is largely due to the effectiveness of the UK’s antenatal screening programme.16 Among the black African population living with HIV, roughly 16% of men and 12% of women were living with an undiagnosed infection.HIV prevalence is comparatively higher among this group.The United Kingdom (UK) has a relatively small HIV epidemic, with an estimated 101,200 people living with HIV in 2015.This equates to an HIV prevalence of 1.6 per 1,000 people aged 15 and over.1 In the same year, 6,095 people were newly diagnosed with HIV and 594 people died of AIDS-related illnesses.2 Despite testing and treatment being free and universally available in the UK, around 13,500 people are unaware of their HIV infection.At the time, 80% of NSPs were pharmacy-based while the remainder were specialist centres.


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